CCS: Keep it in the ground

// By Peter Mackay on 5 Dec 2023
CCS: Keep it in the ground

If the energy transition is to work, a new logistics chain for captured CO2 will be needed. Koole Terminals and Horisont Energi are on the case

Koole Terminals and Horisont Energi have signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding (MoU) that will underpin continue collaboration in exploring the potential development of a European carbon capture and storage (CCS) value chain. The parties intend to develop a CO2 import terminal at Gismarvik, which will be the largest in Norway, to accept shipments from a new export terminal that Koole it exploring in Rotterdam, as well as other possible sources.

Koole’s potential CO2 terminal in Rotterdam would be connected to the planned Delta Rhine Corridor CO2 pipeline, allowing volumes to be gathered from a range of generators in Europe and bulked for shipment to carbon storage terminal.

The intention is that Gismarvik will become an injection hub for CO2 before permanent storage at Horisont’s own locations or others on the Norwegian continental shelf. With an anticipated annual capacity of 20 to 24m tonnes, following design maturation and development, the Gismarvik CO2 terminal has the potential to function as intermedia storage for several CO2 storage projects. A fit-for-purpose CO2 injection solution and system design has already been developed for the offshore part. Horisont Energi has developed plans and started permitting for such a terminal covering offloading from ships, temporary storage, process, and compression prior to pipeline transport to subsea reservoirs for sequestration.


“Our ambition is to build a carbon capture and storage value chain in Europe together with our partners. A proposed CO2 terminal in Rotterdam is intended to play a central role in this context as the gateway from Europe to Norway’s CCS market, both in terms of existing and our planned new carbon storage licences,” says Bjørgulf Haukelidsæter Eidesen, CEO of Horisont Energi. “Koole Terminals’ strong customer base and experience in operating major liquid bulk terminals in central ports of Europe is anticipated to aid in contributing to acceleration of the establishment of the CCS value chain. We look forward to continuing our close collaboration.”

John Kraakman, CEO of Koole Terminals, adds: “Material progress has been made in enhancing our potential CO2 intermediate storage capabilities at Rotterdam since our collaboration commenced. We recognise the synergies in engaging in the potential joint development of the Gismarvik CO2 terminal in Norway, drawing upon our extensive expertise in managing terminals and logistics.” Koole’s proposed CO2 terminal in Rotterdam could have an intermediate storage capacity of as much as 200,000 tonnes of CO2, opening up the potential for the transport of millions of tonnes of CO2 to carbon storage every year.

“The next years will require rapid infrastructure development and investment decisions from all players in the value chain. We stand together with Horisont Energi in driving the energy transition forward,” says Tamme Mekkes, business development director of Koole Terminals.

Horisont Energi and Koole Terminals also expect to explore certification solutions to develop fully auditable comingled inventory control, emission certification, traceability management, and trading solutions for CO2.

Clean energy company Horisont Energi was founded in 2019 and is based in Sandnes, Norway. It provides clean energy and carbon transport and storage services, and is working on solutions to transform gas, water and renewable energy into cost-leading clean ammonia and hydrogen. Horisont and Koole extended an earlier MoU to cover clean ammonia transport and storage a year ago.

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